Piston-deck height

Deck height is defined as the distance between the top edge of the piston crown (with the piston at TDC) to the edge of the cylinder liner. The closer the edge of the piston crown is to the edge of the cylinder the high the compression ratio will be.

So if you have pistons that are 10.5:1 and they are 0.010″ below the edge of the cylinder and you are able to reduce the deck height by 0.010″ then the actual compression ratio of the cylinder will be increased.

The reduction of the piston deck height can be accomplished in several ways. Machining the cylinder block is the most common method.

A word of caution you must know exactly the minimum valve to piston clearance that is required. this varies in different engine designs. To increase the piston to valve clearance usually the valve relief pockets on the piston’s crown are enlarged or the height of the piston at TDC must be lowered in the cylinder.

Oversize Valves

Some tuners believe that larger size valves enhance Hi-RPM power at the expense of Low-RPM power. This has proven to be false due to the results of dyno tests and theory. Larger valves enhance Hi and Low RPM.

When a valve is closed it has no size whatsoever for a cylinder’s ability to induce air flow. A valve that is opened, 0.015”, appears to the cylinder as a small valve. Only when the valve reaches 25% of its total lift point does the cylinder actually experience anything near the true size of the valve. If a cylinder was stuffed with valves as big as possible to create a greater movement of the air/ fuel mixture and exhaust gasses and the larger valves proved to be excessive (too large), the solution of the problem would be to reduce the valve’s lift, besides reducing the air flow it would also reduce the wear and friction on the valve train. In the real world, the criterias for the intake and exhaust system for making peak HP and torque at a given engine RPM is the cross section area of the intake and exhaust ports, not the size of the valves.

The real advantage of using oversize valves is that, for a specific rate of the valve’s opening, an oversize valve will give a greater breathing area to the cylinder quicker. This is equal to as a smaller valve opened at higher rate of acceleration. Any time there is a higher acceleration rate in the valve train, more stress is created.

As long as valve shrouding is not a factor then the largest possible valve in a cylinder head will allow the engine to develop power over the widest RPM range, not just increase the flow at high lift rate. If a dyno test of a engine with a cylinder head that has oversize valves reveals a loss in low RPM power it is because the engines camshaft has to much overlap.

For carbureted normally aspirated Suzuki engines in the 9.5 to 12:1 compression ratio range the exhaust flow needs to be 75 percent of the intake flow. Overall when the compression ratio of an engine increases, in order to obtain the maximum results an exhaust valve can be made smaller in relation to the intake valve. This is due to the power developing earlier in the expansion cycle of a cylinder in high-compression engine, thus allowing the exhaust valve to be opened sooner and longer without any problems. A small exhaust valve will create the opportunity to use a larger intake valve.

Longer exhaust duration

Most stock camshafts from production 4 cylinder engines manufactured today are ground with the longer exhaust lobe duration,or that they are ground with shorter intake durations. This can be viewed that either the Exhaust Ports or Exhaust Pipe system is somewhat restrictive, and needs assistance, or that the intake system is very efficient and cam timing can be trimmed back without a sacrifice in power, in order to maximize throttle response and cruising efficiency. There is no absolute correct viewpoint in a stock engine running at conservative RPM levels, for the sake of overall efficiency, fuel economy and a quiet smooth running engine, this staggering of intake and exhaust duration is quite common and appropriate.

High Performance is another thing entirely. Change one factor, such as the exhaust system installing headers and larger pipes and the need for that longer exhaust lobe has been eliminated. Now add to this change a different carb system and camshaft and you have really changed the equation. But, why is it that so many racers & cam grinders insist on running a cam with longer exhaust duration regardless of what equipment is used? The answer is habit, many have been somewhat successful in doing it this way and will never change unless forced by circumstances.

The best result comes when we realize that an engine is basically an air pump. Air is pumped in and out and there are problems when one side or the other is restricted. Balance and flow is our objective, unless you are NOT trying to make more horsepower!

Most experienced Tuners run a single pattern cam, equal on intake and exhaust duration. This type of designed cam always make more torque.



I have 2 Log Books, the first one is for the engine and the second one is for the bike.

Contained in this Log is every measurement or weight of components that are subjected to wear, this includes the transmission, clutch plates, clutch springs, crankshaft, connecting rods, pistons, piston pins, piston rings, camshafts, valve guides, valve stems and valve springs, drive chain and sprockets . Although you may consider this time consuming the benefits are substantial. Once you have a baseline of your measurements then the next time you disassemble your engine you will have a very good picture of the wear rate of all the components. This process will virtually eliminate parts breaking from fatigue and you will be able to determine what aftermarket parts are more durable. For example I know using a certain type of piston ring in my 1327cc EFE race engine that for every 165 passes down the race track that both my top and second ring end gap wears 0.001″ of any inch. This was the same wear rate that I encountered with my 1230cc EFE race engine using the same type of piston rings. So I know that the oil that I am using is working and the quality of the part is consistant no matter what the power out put is and that after x ammount of passes I have to replace the rings before the power starts to drop. Utilizing this measurement process for the last 20 years I have found that the one part of the GS /EFE engine’s that wear out the fastest are the valve springs, and by the way I have never broken a valve spring in over 7,100 passes down the track.

In this log I list my tune-up ( jets, timming, drive sprocket size, tire psi,), in additon to the brand of race fuel and octane, my launch and shift RPM for the particular track that I am racing at. Also before I unload my bike, I list measurement of the temperture, humidity, wind direction including approximate speed, and air density and record the time of day. I remeasure and list all of the above items every hour that I am at the track. The info gained from these measurements is very beneficial when you are racing a dial-in type of class, because it makes the tune decission for every round easier. Also once you collect all of the above info you will have an insight on your bikes performance the next time you race at the same track if the weather and time of day is very close.

Induction System Volumetric Efficiency

here are two real world effects that determine how much fuel/air charge can get into the cylinder. The first is that air is compressible, the second is the dynamics (acceleration/deceleration) of the air. The compressibility of the air becomes a factor when the air enters the intake port around the intake valve. The intake port/valve forms a constriction, like the throat of a nozzle. Because air is compressible, it can only be pushed through a constriction so fast. Regardless of how much pressure you apply, the maximum velocity possible through the throat of a nozzle is a velocity equal to the speed of sound .

The same effect happens at the intake valve. The ratio of the typical velocity to the intake sonic velocity is called the inlet Mach index. From the science of fluid mechanics the controlling velocity in a compressible flow system is usually the intake valve opening. For a given cylinder and valve design, the inlet Mach index is proportional to the piston speed, and that the fuel/air charge flows in faster when the piston moves down faster. Of course, at some point the constriction of the valve opening starts to limit this. When the inlet Mach index exceeds 0.5 (intake velocity equal to half the speed of sound), the volumetric efficiency falls rapidly with increasing speed. Therefore, enginest are typically designed so that the inlet Mach index does not exceed 0.5 at the highest rated speed.

The effect of this constriction shows up as a pressure drop through the intake valve. Why don’t we just open the intake valve further? Because when the valve is lifted a distance equal to 1/4 of its diameter, the area of a cylinder around the valve (that the fuel/air charge passes through, not the engine cylinder) is equal to the area of the valve face and intake port, ignoring the valve stem. Mathematically, the area of the cylinder is (2 r)(d/4). Since d = 2r, this evaluates to r2, which is the area of the intake port, the amount of additional flow through the intake port increases very slowly as the lift of the valve increases beyond 1/4 of the valve diameter.

Because of the dynamics of the fuel/air charge, the intake valve normally closes at some time after the piston passes bottom dead center. As the piston moves down, it draws the fuel/air charge into the cylinder. This movement builds up momentum in the intake manifold. When the piston reaches bottom dead center, the fuel/air charge is still flowing into the cylinder as a result of this residual momentum. Thus, at the speed desired for maximum torque, the intake valve closing is timed to correspond with the velocity of the fuel/air charge through the intake port dropping to zero. This closing will occur at some time after the piston has started the compression stroke, and will result in the maximum amount of fuel/air charge being drawn into the cylinder. This maximizes the volumetric efficiency, and maximizes the torque delivered to the crankshaft, ignoring friction effects. The angle of the crankshaft at the time the intake valve closes is called the intake valve closing angle.

So what effects does this later valve closing have at other speeds? At low speeds, the momentum built up in the intake manifold will be small, such that part of the fuel/air charge will be pushed back into the intake manifold as the piston starts up prior to the intake valve closing. At speeds above the speed for maximum torque, the constriction of intake valve opening will cause a pressure loss which will reduce the amount of fuel/air charge entering the cylinder. In either case, the amount of fuel/air charge in the cylinder is reduced, and thus the torque is reduced.

The design of the intake manifold also affects the amount of momentum built up in the flow of the fuel/air charge. The momentum of the fuel/air charge is the sum of the effect of standing waves built up from previous intake strokes keep in mind that any tube will have a resonant frequency and effect the transient wave caused by the current intake stroke. While the standing waves contribute to the overall effect, there are no sudden changes in the volumetric efficiency when the RPM of the engine is an even multiple of the natural frequency of the intake manifold.

Long, skinny intake manifold pipes give high volumetric efficiencies at low piston speeds because high momentum lots of velocity is built up in the pipe during the intake stroke. At high piston speeds, the small diameter of the intake pipe causes a constriction and the volumetric efficiency falls. Fat intake pipes show a maximum volumetric efficiency at intermediate piston speeds. However, at high piston speeds, the larger mass of the fuel/air charge in the fat intake pipe is slow to accelerate, and thus the volumetric efficiency falls off.

As the manifold pipes get shorter, the maximum gain in volumetric efficiency over having no intake manifold at all decreases. However, the gain you do get with shorter intake pipe happens over a greater range of piston speeds. Basically, it comes down to the intake manifold pipe should be designed according to the engine requirements. If you need high torque at slow piston speeds, use long skinny intake pipes. For high torque at intermediate piston speeds, use long fat intake pipes. For high torque over a wide range of piston speeds (i.e. a flat torque curve), use shorter intake pipes.

Ignition components

Inductive Discharge Coils – Ignition spark for motorcycle is accomplished by the iginiton coil, coils have 2 sets of windings, a primary and a secondary. A typical coil will have around 250 turns of wire on the primary and about 25,000 on the secondary for a ratio of 100 to 1. The secondary section often uses an iron core to increase its inductance. Coil resistance on the primary will be from .3 to .5 ohms usually and on the secondary, between 5000 and 12,000 ohms. The inductance and resistance of the coil will determine how quickly a coil can be charged and discharged.

A transistor is used to switch the current flow off and on in the primary coil. When the transistor is switched on, current rapidly builds from 0 to a maximum value determined by the coil inductance and resistance. This current flow induces a magnetic field within the primary. When the current is turned off, this magnetic field collapses which cuts the windings of the secondary coil and induces a high voltage surge.

Output voltage is determined by the rate of field collapse and the windings ratio between primary and secondary. Because the path to ground for the current involves the spark gap, initial resistance is extremely high. This allows the voltage to build to a high value until it gets high enough to jump the plug gap. The difference must be high enough to first ionize the gas between the electrodes. The ionized gas creates a conductive path for the current to flow, at this point the arc jumps and current flow is established.

If only 10,000 volts are required to jump a plug gap under a given condition, that will be the maximum delivered. It is also important to note that the spark duration is determined by coil inductance and total resistance of the circuit, plus spark plug gap. Most inductive discharge systems have a spark duration of between 1 and 2 milliseconds.

When cylinder pressure increases, the voltage required to jump the plug gap increases. The second problem on high performance engines with high rev limits, is that there is less time to charge the coil with increasing rpm, high rpm and high output puts greater demands on the ignition system.

Coil Charge Time and Saturation – The time it takes to charge the coil or bring the current to maximum in the primary windings is called charge time. Input voltage and coil resistance are the main parameters relating to charge time, when the current has reached its maximum value in the primary, it is said to be fully saturated.

If current is applied longer than the time needed to fully saturate the primary, energy is wasted and there is nothing to be gained. If the current is cut off before saturation is achieved, the maximum spark energy available will be reduced.

Coils require charge times of between 2.1 and 6 milliseconds. Obviously, a coil requiring 6 milliseconds to saturate would be unsuitable on a high revving engine as there is not 6 milliseconds available to charge it between discharges at high rpm. For this reason, most racing coils have low primary resistances between .3 and .7 ohms and are fully saturated in less than 3 milliseconds permiting full coil output at very high rpms.

Capacitive Discharge Ignition – On very high output engines, an inductive discharge coil is inadequate to supply spark at high rpm and high cylinder pressures. A CD ignition or CDI is used to reduce charge times. The MSD system is very popular worldwide.

In normal inductive discharge coils, only 12-14 volts is available from the battery to charge the primary. The CDI charges capacitors to store a high voltage kick to fire to the primary side, putting between 30 and 500 volts onto the primary windings which reduces the charge time substantially. A coil that would take 3 milliseconds to become fully saturated with 12 volts is now fully saturated in less than 1 with a CDI. The same engine now will be able to turn twice the RPM and experience a major increase in cylinder pressure before encountering misfire.

Some CDIs also include a multispark function where more than 1 spark is generated after the first spark. This improves ignition probability besides the high rpm coil saturation advantages and a greater resistance to plug fouling.

Ignition Wires (Spark Leads) – The purpose of the ignition wires is to conduct the maximum coil output energy to the spark plugs with a minimum amount of radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI). There are 3 basic types of conductors used in racing applications: carbon string, solid and spiral wound. Most production engines come equipped with carbon string. The solid core types are used exclusively for racing, mainly with carbureted or non-computer controlled engines because they offer no EMI or RFI suppression. They generally have a low resistance stainless steel conductor. These types are rapidly losing favor, even in racing circles.

The carbon string type is the most common and work just fine in racing applications. The conductor is usually a carbon impregnated fiberglass multistrand. Suppression qualities are fine with resistances in the 5K to 10K ohms per foot. They are cheap and reliable for 2 to 5 years usually, then they may start to break down and should be replaced. High voltage racing ignitions will likely hasten their demise. Dynatech makes low priced wire set which works well in performance applications.

Ignition Wires (Spark Leads) – The spiral wound type is probably the best type for any application. The better brands offer excellent suppression, relatively low resistance and don’t really wear out. Construction quality and choice of material vary widely between brands. NGK makes low priced wire sets which work well in performance applications.

Some amount of resistance is required along with proper construction to achieve high suppression levels. Resistance is also important to avoid damaging some types of coils and amplifiers due to flyback and coil harmonics. Beware of wires claiming to have very low resistance. These CANNOT have good suppression qualities.

Beware of any ignition wires claiming to increase hp. Ignition wires CANNOT increase hp. As long as the wires that you have are allowing the spark to jump the gap properly, installing a set of $200 wires is strictly a waste of money.

Lately, some truly “magic” wires have come onto the market claiming to not only increase power but also to shorten the spark duration from milliseconds to nanoseconds. As previously mentioned, spark duration is determined primarily by coil inductance and coil resistance so these wires CANNOT shorten the spark duration by the amount claimed. The wire resistance has a minimal effect on discharge time because of the high voltage involved. A very short duration spark is in fact detrimental to ignition because of lower probability.

These same wires claim to increase flame front propagation rates and the ability to ignite over-rich fuel mixtures for more power. Once ignited, the mixture undergoes a flagregation process and that the progression rate of the flame front is totally independent of the spark. As previously mentioned most gasolines will not ignite nor burn at air fuel ratios richer than 10 to 1, period, and that maximum power is actually achieved at around 12 / 13 to 1 AFR so the claim also has no basis in fact.

These wires use a braided metal shield over the main conductor which is grounded to the chassis. This arrangement offers poor suppression because it does not cover the entire conductor. Any energy leaking out of the main conductor by induction is actually wasted to ground and will not make it to the spark plug. These wires also have very low resistance which as mentioned can have a detrimental effect on coils and ignition amplifiers due to severe flyback effects which are normally damped by circuit resistance.

Other claims for these wires include current flows of up to 1000 amps. The current flow in the ignition circuit is determined by the coil construction and drive circuits, not by the ignition wires. Most ignition systems are current limited to between 5 and 15 amps. The most powerful race systems rarely exceed 30 amps. To flow current at 1000 amps, you would require #0 welding cable for the ignition system!

Spark Plugs – The final part in the ignition system is the spark plug itself. The average plug consists of steel shell which threads into the cylinder head, a ceramic insulator, an iron or copper core leading to a nickel or platinum center electrode and a ground electrode of similar material. The spark jumps between the center and ground electrode. Certain special application plugs may have multiple ground electrodes. Different heat ranges are available depending on application. For constant high power applications, a colder than stock plug is usually selected to keep internal temperatures within limits.

Again, many “trick” plugs come onto the market from time to time expounding the virtues of their incredible new design, usually offering more hp of course. Split electrode plugs are a waste of money because the spark will only jump to one of the electrodes at a time in any case.

You will find that most reputable engine builders for racing use standard NGK, Bosch or Champion plugs with a standard electrode setup. A properly selected, standard plug will easily last 25,000 miles of hard use in most engines. A platinum tipped plug will easily last twice as long on most engines. There is no rocket science here, modern spark plugs coupled to modern ignition systems in a modern engine are extremely cheap and reliable, even on race engines, a $2, off the shelf, NGK plug will work just fine.

Ignition / combustion criteria

Some people think that when a spark plug fires, the fuel/air mixture explodes instantaneously, driving the piston down. If this really happened, engines would last only a few minutes before they literally explode.

Looking at the dynamics involved from the moment that the intake valve is fully open. With the piston moving down the bore, cylinder volume increases, cylinder pressure decreases, allowing the higher pressure in the intake tract to push the fuel/air mixture into the cylinder. As the piston starts back up and the intake valve closes, cylinder volume decreases and cylinder pressure increases.

When the crankshaft reaches about 30 degrees before top dead center (TDC), the spark jumps the gap between the spark plug electrode. The purpose of the spark is to raise the temperature of a very small portion of the fuel/air mixture above its ignition temperature. This is the point where true combustion begins. As the reaction starts, the mixture directly adjacent to the spark plug is also ignited and the process progresses out from the spark plug in a roughly spherical shape.

At about 20 degrees before top dead center (BTDC), the rate of heat release causes the cylinder pressure to rise above the compression line which is what the cylinder pressure would be at a given piston position without ignition. Notice that it has taken 10 degrees of crank rotation to generate this pressure level. This is known as the ignition-delay period.

The rate of pressure rise is a function of the rate of energy release vs. the rate of change of combustion space. The rate of energy release is directly related to the flame propagation rate and the area of reacting surface. The flame speed is dependant on fuel/air ratio, charge density, charge homogeny, fuel characteristics, charge turbulence and reaction with inert gasses and the combustion chamber, cylinder walls and piston.

No two combustion cycles progress at the same rate or uniform rate. Some start slow and end slow, some start slow and end fast, some start fast and slow down. Generally, only the ones that end too fast will lead to detonation / knocking / pinging as the rapid pressure rise may happen too soon with the cylinder volume still decreasing or not increasing fast enough. Usually, not all cylinders will detonate / knock / ping at the same time or on the same cycle because of this.

By the time the crank is at about 5 degrees after top dead center (ATDC), the cylinder pressure is about double that of the compression line. From this point to roughly 15 degrees after top dead center (ATDC) the combustion process is fast due to the increasing area of inflamed mixture and the high rate of energy release. The peak cylinder pressure (PCP) occurs between 10 and 20 degrees after top dead center (ATDC) on most engines and the combustion process is complete by 20 to 25 degrees after top dead center (ATDC). The peak temperature within the combustion gasses will reach somewhere around 5000 degrees Fahrenheit and pressures may be anywhere from 300 to 2500psi depending on the engine.

Obviously it is very important to have the crankpin at an advantageous angle before maximum cylinder pressure is achieved in order that maximum force is applied through the piston and rod to the crankshaft. If the mixture was ignited too early, much of the force would simply try to compress the piston, rod and crank without performing any useful work. In a worst case scenario, the cylinder pressure would be rapidly rising before the piston reached top dead center (TDC) which would have the cylinder volume decreasing at the same time. This will often result in detonation/knock/ ping which is counterproductive to maximum power and engine life.

Detonation, knock or pinging is defined as a form of combustion which involves too rapid a rate of energy release producing excessive temperatures and pressures, adversely affecting the conversion of chemical energy into useful work. Detonation usually involves ignition and literal explosion of the end gases, these are the gases not in contact with the initial spark or the progressing flame front.

If peak cylinder pressure (PCP) is achieved too late, again, less work would be performed. Most of the useful work is done in the first 100 degrees of crank rotation. Most combustion must be done with the piston in close proximity to the chamber so that the minimum amount of heat (energy) is lost and the maximum amount of energy is delivered to the crankshaft.

Setting up CV carbs for a turbo

See below all I know about blowthrough CV carbs. This is worth several hundred hours of sorting out and at least €1000,- worth of dyno time, so feel free to thank me! (and/or make a paypal donation)

Bowl pressure
If pressure in venturi of carbs is raising due to boost, so should the pressure in bowl raise. Because if pressure in bowls is lower as it is in venturi, no fuel can be taken into the engine.
In my experience dynamic boost is absolutely nessecary, and it’s best to give each connection on the carbs it’s own spot on the tube going to the plenum: not in the plenum itself as there is to much pulsing. Make sure they are “angelcut” and in the middle of the airstream. (also known as pitot tubes)

On the GSXR1100 model 92 with the 40mm carbs you need to fasten the rubber T’s for instance with steel wire to prevent leakage and pressure drop.

Membrane pressure (CV carbs only)
Pressure above slidemembrane is not needed: it got it’s signal/pressure through the hole in the slide. Don’t enlarge the holes because the slides go up too fast and cause stuttering. (beware of dynojet kit modifications: larger holes and softer springs are a real pain in the butt for the midrange!)

Pressure below the membrane is needed. On the GSXR1100 model 92 with the 40mm carbs you have a seperate “venting” system with external hoses. Those are not suitable to pressurize. I removed that system, plugged the holes and drilled holes from the bellmouth towards under the diafram. When you drill you cross a not used hole. You have to plug that up also to prevent leakage and pressure drop. So it is made like the earlier models: the 36 and 38 mm CV carbs do not have this system.

Fuel pressure
The pressure of the fuel going to the bowls should be higher than the pressure in the bowl. If not, not any fuel is flowing into the carbs causing starvation as soon as boost starts to build.
Therefore you need a pump capable of making enough pressure to overcome boost + 2-3 psi at sufficient amount of fuel. The standard membrane pump on some carb bikes is definitely not up to the job: don’t even try it. An automotive EFI pump coming out of a car with the same amount of horsepower you are aiming for should work allright.

If you don’t use a regulator: you will have the maximum pressure on the bowls the pump can handle, and that will be around 90 psi and the end of your carbs.
A regulator is used (I use a malpassi and highly recommend it) to give the carbs a 2-3 psi above boost, so difference in pressure between pump and carbs is always the same independent of boost. Make sure you use a bypass type, not a deadend type as it is less accurate. If you can get away with 5 psi on the carbs without leaking, you can use static pressure and don’t need to modify the malpassi. It you have trouble with it, as I have, you need to shorten the spring in the malpassi a bit to achieve 2-3 psi. I also needed a bigger 8mm return line to be less restrictive. Than you definately need the dynamic pressure to prevent starvation under boost!

Don’t make holes in the slides bigger, or use soft dynojet springs! They make things worse in the midrange area.
If you have your carbs and fuelsupply correctly setup: you don’t need to make big adjustments to needles and jets. Mine is actually on 125 mainjets (stock!) functioning just fine at 11.5:1 A/F
Don’t get an A/F any leaner then 12:1 A/F when you use some serious boost. You will burn up some pistons/valves. 11.5:1 is safe imho.
Use an A/F meter to see what’s going on. Looking at plugs is not saying too much, because if their getting hotter then normal on a turbocharged motorcycle they are white anyway.
Symptoms of lean and rich while driving can sometimes be very similar so in doubt always consult the A/F on a dyno!
Because of the lowered fuellevel it is nessecary to give more fuel for the idle, in my case 8 complete turns out for the mixture screws.

Extra tips:
Place a fuelfilter between pump and regulator. Not before pump because you restrict too much, and not after regulator because you messing with pressure which is critical on a carb/turbo setup. Make sure the fuelfilter can hold the pressure!
The return line of the regulator should be as less restrictive as possible: inside minimum 6mm returning into TOP of tank, not below fuellevel in tank. Otherwise fuel pressure cannot go as low as 2-3 psi. Don’t ever (I mean ever!) bend this line because fuel pressure can reach scary levels damaging your carbs seriously!!!!
Mount a fuelpressure gauge direcly next to the boost gauge so you can easy troubleshoot. Remove later if you want to.
Remove filter in your petcock, or better mount a less restrictive petcock without filter. Pingel makes these, but I machined a custom one with build in fuelreturn to the top of the tank so you don’t have to weld in a separate fitting in the tank
If it’s a vacuum operated petcock make sure you use the bypass mode: otherwise on boost the petcock will shut! This is a nice one, as you easily overlook it. On some models the petcock is really restricted in bypass mode so you have to modify that in some way.
If carbs overflow: put in new needles and valves. Make sure fuellevel is not too high: pressurized bowls have a slightly higher fuellevel so you maybe have to adjust it a few milimeters.
On very high horsepowerlevels there can’t flow enough fuel past the needles. Put in thinner/sharper dynojetneedles to solve this. Typical symptom is a sharp leaning out around peak torque, were you need the most fuel every stroke. This makes it harder to get the midrange ok.
At higher boost you can press out the choke plungers! This causes unwanted rich situations and stalling at closing the throttle. Put in stronger springs to solve.

This info is true for my bike and my application. Some of this info is also true on other bikes/carbs but you have to check yourself. If it doesn’t work or you burn your engine up: I don’t accept any claims. If you crash due to an exploding engine: I’m really sorry and I will send flowers to your family but I am not responsible!

Good luck!

>> Check out the hints section of www.turbo-bike.com, site has an illustrated guide for “converting” CV’s for turbo use.

The small 34mm gsxr750 carbs with alloy throttles and 4 screws on the caps and floats are actually the best you can use when going turbo. A friend (at is cranking out 420 rwhp at 2.2 Bar of boost.

I’m also using 34mm carbs on my turbo GSX with alu caps. One more tip: Replace the o-rings in the T-s that go to the floatbowls; 9 times out of 10 they are old and brittle and will leak your precious dynamic boost so the motor runs like a pig at the transit from vaccuum to boost.
One important thing that I noticed during dyno-testing is that you (usually) start with std. mains, then lean it out a bit. If you go down-or upsize the mains, they have a bigger effect on fuelling than it would on an NA engine. So where you would normally say take it 3 sizes down at a time, you need to take one size at at time with this setup.


for 38-40 mm carbs




Extra shift detent spring

EXTRA SHIFT DETENT SPRING: “There Is Enough Tension In Drag Racing”

I just read a thread about adding an additional dentent spring in your GS / EFE Transmission. This is an acceptable modification for a stock activated shift linkage.

A lot of my hands on mechanical knowledge has been gained thru many decades of working as a R&D Engineer for various Automobile and Motoccyle Maufactuers such as G.M. Toyota, Isuzu, Suzuki, Yamaha, Kawasaki and H-nda. An advantage of working for these Companies is that I would spend a lot of time with a large variety of data acquisition instruments. Fortunately I was able to use and apply many of these instruments to my EFE Drag Bike.

Many of our OSS members are well aware of the fact that Drag Races are won or lossed by a thousand of a second. I have had the opportunity to do A -B -A testing methods using test instruments that are capable of taking measurements in miliseconds, comparing the use of a single or double detent springs with a MRE Pro-Airshifter.

The results of the tests (confirmed repeatability) is that a bike utilizing an MRE Pro-Airshifter will engauge a gear faster with a single spring as compared to using a double spring.

You can consider the above information as another “SSR Race Trick” donated to the OSS site. I still have several more when it comes to Suzuki transmissions that will remain propriety information.

“May The Shift Be With You”